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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. An outline of English phonetics by Daniel Jones, , G. E. Stechert & Co. edition, in English. LANGUAGE, VOLUME 32, NUMBER 3. An outline of English phonetics. By DANIEL JONES. Eighth edition, enti revised and reset. Pp. xx, Cambridge.
Every speech sound contains either breath or voice. When we speak in a whisper. It is is not an in reality a distinction based on acoustic considerations. All other sounds in normal speech' This instrument responds excellently to voiced consonants and close vowels.
There is no objection to this terminology. The is audible friction distinction e. The presence or absence of voice of the kymograph see Chap. H Breath and Voice. In whispered speech "voice" is replaced throughout by "whisper" and every sound consists of audible friction and nothing else except the "stops" of breathed plosives. Consonants therefore include i aU sounds which are not voiced e. The result resembles ha with a very ' but it strong kind of ll.
A vowel in normal speech' is defined as a voiced sound in which the air has a free passage through the mouth. This may be seen by pronouncing a whispered fi immediately followed by a voiced a. Thus the sound a pronounced in the normal manner can be heard at a much greater distance than the sound p or the sound f pronounced in the normal manner. The English sounds j and yard jtt: Thus it is a fact that speech sounds which consist wholly or in part of "noise" as distinguished from "musical sound" are less sonorous than those which contain no perceptible "noise".
It is convenient consonants rather than as vowels. Chapter VI. When so used. If this classification were adopted. When there is no great variation in the force of the breath.
This effect occurs when a vowel of less sonority is pronounced extremely short and is immediately followed sonority. Some consonants are breaiJted. Close vowels are frequently used in by a vowel of greater this way. The breathed little sonority in comparison with the voiced sounds. The relative sonority or carrying power of sounds depends chiefly on their quality.
It ' The line of distinction between vowels and consonants might have been drawn elsewhere. J2 Classipication of Sounds they carry better or can be heard at a greater distance. Hence a perfectly logical classification into vowels and consonants might be based on the presence or absence of perceptible "noise".
This method of classification would. A true pmpmpm 1 may be acquired by pracpronounced without opening the lips.. Llangollen an'galeii. Apart from the division into the two groups "breathed" and "voiced". Take care that this exercise does not degenerate into iHiuium.. This is done by practising sequences such as Tfvf.. In practising these exercises. The distinction between the voiced and breathed "plosives" p.
Besides being useful in teaching voiced sounds. Voiced d. Classification of Sounds 13 should be noted that voiced consonants are usually pronounced with less force of the breath than breathed consonants. The difficulty generally lies in the voiced sounds. The fiO. It is a good phonetic exercise to deduce unfamiliar breathed consonants from familiar voiced ones. When sounds are commonly substituted These exercises present extraordinary difficulty to some foreigners.
If them. These sounds are often called consonants. If we classify viz. Palatal sounds. French t. Nasal consonants. Lateral consonants. It is lateral and. Glottal or laryngal sounds. Classification of Sounds Chaptek VI. These sounds are sometimes called divided consonII. Dented sounds. Rolled some consonants. Velar sounds. The nasal consonants are the only English sounds in which the soft palate is lowered.
Fricative cons'onants. The classification of consonants is made clear by arranging them in a table. Classification of Sodnds 15 The following is a table of the English consonants so arranged: Lai Bilabial.
This triangle Fig. The vowels of weU-defined quality are chiefly those in which the tongue is remote from such aa intermediate position. Those in which the highest point of the tongue is approximately on the right-hand side of the triangle. Classification or Sodnds 16 E at tlie end of the rod. If we examine the tongue positions of the the back or in the front. Such are the vowels in pid. The chief vowels of weU-defined quality may be conveniently classed in five groups.
Such are the vowels in it. The Vowel is Triangle". Note that the position of the tip of the tongue has no great effect on vowel quality.
The shape of the air passage above the larynx is governed. The quality timbre of this sound depends length of the part of the cylinder projecting beyond the piston.
Atkinson Esq. It is not necessary to distinguish more than this one intermediate degree between back vowels and front vowels.
Classification of Vowels [ 7 Eastbury Avenue. Engllih Phonetics 2. An example of a mixed vowel is the vowel in iird.
West View. The Bmi- Classification vowels. The positions of the tongue in the formation of the different vowel sounds may. A handle fig. D ' Obtainable from H. It will be seen that in front vowels the "front" of the tongue raised in the direction of the hard palate. Vowels may also be classed according the tongue to the height to which the tongue When we Vowels in which the highest point of the tongue is weU within the triangle.
In the above system of classification into the three divisions front. The price of the set of two instruments with necessary- fittings is Atkin- Mouth son's Measurer. By number adjusting the tooth-stop at different points. It is so rtiade is an attachment called the E when the projection points downwards it can slide along the tube. In taking measurements it is fixed. Atkinson's Mouth Measurer in position.
The instrument is then removed from the mouth and the into the centre of the Pig. The instru- through the holes F. Classificatiok 18 xjf Soukds to slide the wire along inside The wire is the handle D the tube.
When the bellows is fitted ' This latter arrangement really gives the best results it is better to reserve the tooth-stop shown in the figure for points of the tongue that cannot be reached without it.
Consequently when the handle D is pushed to the other end C of the slot. A rubber tube T to which exploratory bulbs. Elwert of is that of Ziind-Burguet. He has also an-ived at valuable results with X-ray photographs.
An account work will be found in Untersuchungen iiber Lautbildung by E. Falatograms are also useful g. Another element which is considered by many to he of im- portance in determining vowel quality is the state of the tongue and ' If the distance between the teeth is much greater than 1 cm.
The also largely affected may be held in a natural or neutral position. Meyer published by Elwert. Others are called unrounded. Examples of rounded vowels are the sounds of the u type. If the spreading of the lips lips is very marked. It is desirable Ziind-Burguet's ru making palatograms Quadrant Indicator. Classification op Vowet. Vowel the tongue. Vowels produced with the lips the latter position are called rounded vowels.
Similarly if the distance is much less than 1 cm. The height of the jaw may be kept constant by holding The pencil should not be the end of a pencil firmly between the teeth.
Marburg a. Meyer of Stockholm has obtained excellent diagrams of the tongue positions of vowels by means of a row of fine leaden threads attached to an artificial palate along its centre line.
It is extremely difficult to deteras is practically equivalent to m mine in the case of the opener vowels whether the sensation of is present or not. Thus in narrow transcription the lax 1 and u sounds may be denoted by [i]. The term tense and lax will only be applied this book in the case of close and half-close vowels. Here the characteristics of U as com- position of the English short in long "tense" u: At the same time it is convenient in practical work to have a single term to denote this "lowering and retracting".
Vowels produced while the tongue is in a state of considerable inuscular tension are called tense vowels. The term "lax" is short e and to the English also commonly applied to the English the first element of the diphthong OU. In the case of English short e the particular quality designated by the term "lax" might. Those who prefer using separate symbols for lax i. Those produced while the tongue is not in a state of muscular tension but is held loosely.
In other cases it seems hardly advisable to make any distinction between tense and lax vowels. In the case of English teristic known laxness this charac- "having the tongue slightly lower than the normal half-close position and the lips less close together than is usually the case with half-close vowels".
A description The result is that no air can pass through the nose. Front Close. We Classification of Vowels 21 throat between the larynx and the ohin. When two sounds of a group are separated by one or more sounds less sonorous than either of them. When vowels are pronounced with the soft palate lowered in this way. The movements of the soft palate may be observed by means of a pencil about 6 inches long inserted into the mouth.
The soft palate may affect vowel quality. In the ai-ttculation of normal vowels the soft palate is raised so that it touches the back of the pharynx as shown in fig. It is. Thus in the group 'lete letter. S and to fall for the sounds a.. An example of a nasalized vowel is the French fl. Half-close Half-open Open. If this is held between the finger and the upper teeth so that the end inside the mouth rests lightly against the middle of the soft palate.
Thus ' Some foreigners are apt to replace the syllabic 1. The always. Consequently no two of the sounds are separated by a sound less sonorous than either of them. Thus in the group graund ground the most sonorous sound is the a. Examples of diphthongs in English are ai as in high hai. The latter is. It must always be remembered that where there tain.. Similarly in the group Undsn and 9 belong to different syllables because they are a London the less sonorous than either of them.
In the comparatively rare cases form two syllables. Syllabic sounds are generally. This pronunciation is incorrect. Soch pronunciations must be avoided. The most sonorous sound in a syllable is said to be syllabic. In a case like lower 'l0H8 the presence of the u is sufficient to separate the syllables. In kou'opereit the presence of the n is sufficient to separate the syllables. The same thing appears to be not unfrequently done in the French creer.
When two vowels are so placed and so pronounced that there is no diminution of sonority between them i. Germans are apt to mark the syllable division in such words as create kri'eit. But this. This may be indicated phonetically. The groups then approach nearer to true triphthongs. When a diphthong is formed by two vowels which are normally of approximately equal sonority.
In some words.
An example of this is found in the English diphthong S3 as in fair fsa. The sounds e and 9 when isolated and pronounced with equal force of the breath have approximately equal sonority.
In the English diphthongs ai. Thus in the English diphhigh hai. The An example of a true triphthong is uoi in the Italian iuoi buai. When in a group of three consecutive vowels which are not separated by any diminution in the force of the breath.
In their extreme forms they become diphthongs of the type a9 or the single long vowel a: The gi-oups ai9. Scandinavians also have a tendency to replace p by b when it occurs at the beginning of an unstressed syllable as in upper 'Ap9. Plosive consonants are formed by completely closing the air passage. Note the exceptionally spelt word hiccough 'hikAp. In explosive sound.
Other Germans. Por further discussion. Scandinavians and some Germans are apt to aspirate initial p far too strongly. They should practise aspirating the p in these cases. This aspiration is not so strong when the p is preceded by s e.
P The it is p is the examples ptarmigan 'taimigdn. It is not usually necessary to indicate the aspiration of p in practical phonetic transcription. Chapter VIII. In English when p is followed by a stressed vowel as in pardon 'pa: Also the aspiration is not so sti'ong when an extremely short vowel follows. The result is that the b becomes a bilabial fricative consonant phonetic symbol AeJp help.
Words for practice: Spaniards and Portuguese people do not always make the fuR contact which is necessary for the proper pronunciation of the sound b.
The sound b made The formation of the sound may be expressed is ' Note that the name Combe ia pronounced ka: They should rather aim at saying 'pha: Plosive Conbonants p.
October ak'toube. The vocal chords are not made to vibrate. In pronouncing the English variety of the sound t. This is especially the case when the b comes between two vowels as in labour 'leiba. JB is also before if in a Many Sonie Germans have a similar tendency. Imm bain. It The sound is. The as in difference Chaptee VIH. In English syllable. This tion produces a very unnatural effect when when used articula- in English. Mathilda ma'tilde.
Thomas 'tames. Thames Tongue position of French t variety with tip of tongue against lower teeth. Thus wicked is. Tongue position of English Tongue Fig. Scandinavians h and Germans. The sound they produce is known as "unaspirated" t. Palatogram of the English Fig. Plosive Consonants as p. They should pracsuch cases. French people. Exceptions are aperture. These feebly. Palato- Examples church tja. Palate- gram of the English word tea.
Scandinavians have a tendency to replace t when by d occurs at the beginning of an unstressed syllable. There are. Words This produces a very unnatural effect in English. The palatograms for d are practically identical with thope for t figs. Like t. Note that the termination -ed in adjectives is practically always -Id. H eitf. Hence a difference in pronunciation is made between aged participle eidjd and aged adjective 'eldsld.
For exercises for acquiring q Similarly the adverbs formed from participles take the pronunciation -idli. Wofds Scotch skatj. The Enolish Plosivb Consonants different speakers. Many foreigners. The formation of the English d may expressed shortly by defining it as a voiced post-dental or alveolak plosive consonant. Note that final -ed is pronounced d in the past tenses and past participles of all verbs ending in vowels or in voiced consonants other than d.
Chin tfin. With some probably the majority the lips are protruded. Chaptkb 28 VIII. Broitwich 'draitwltj. Jack dsask. The place-name Sandwich is more usually 'stenwitj.
June d5ii: Jaw d5a:. In pronouncing the sound k the air passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the soft palate. As symbol d regards the variety of d known as "inverted" d li: Plosive Consonants d. Scandina- to vians are also apt to replace ' Less commonly 'ksprakta. The phonetic symbol for the breathed palatal plosive consonant realized is C. Tongue po- a few words in which it is pronounced k e.
Christmas 'krismas'. The sound k is the regular sound of the letter k. French persons speaking English are apt to make the point of contact of the tongue with the palate too far forward in pronouncing k. In English when k is followed by a stressed vowel. Other Germans on the contrary.. Scandinavians and some Germans are apt to exaggerate this h. A palatohowever obtained when a front vowel follows. Tongue po- Fig. A palatogram of this word is shown in fig. The formation of the sound k may be expressed shortly.
Chapter 30 VIII. Gibbs gibz. The sound g is also used in some words spelt with ge and gi. Gillespie gi'iespi. The forma- is formed exactly tion of the sound g may be expressed shortly by defining the sound as the VOICED velak plosive consonant. They should therefore rather aim at pronouncing 'khigdam. Gifford is 'gifad or 'djifad the former being the more frequent. The principal words in which g before e or i is pronounced' g are gear gia.
Gilbey 'gilbi. TtnucUe They should prac- in these cases. Qibbon s 'gibaa z. French persons on the other hand. Gibson 'gibsn. Plosive Consonants k. Gissing 'gisig and a number of less common names. The x in the prefix ex. As in the case of k some French speakers are apt to articulate g too far forward and sometimes even to replace it by the voiced when a front vowel follows.
Gilchrist 'gilkrist. Also pronounced geal. Gill in "Jack and Gill" is djU. Gilson is 'dsilsu or 'gllsn the former being the more frequent. The sound ' may also be observed in the pronunciation of persons who are "glottal catch". Danes and some Germans have a similar tendency. The English Plosive Consonants 32 Many Coughs can be represented in phonetic transcription if desired. Most foreigners. Thus if the word absohitdy in it is absolutely false normally its'aebseluitli'foils is spoken with great emphasis.
In forming the sound ' the glottis is closed completely by bringing the vocal chords into contact. An exaggerated form of this consonant constitutes the explosive sound heard in coughing. A weakened form of the consonant ' occurs in the pronunciation of many languages. Words for practice.
Thus instead of pronouncing it was all our own fault as itwa'za: Sometimes they even insert the sound in the middle of a word. This sound is commonly known as the "glottal stop" or has no letter to represent it in ordinary spelling. W69''aBX or more prpt at the termination of a syllable is replaced by 'in many English diain London dialect mutton.
A common kind of cough is 'Aha'Ah. I two contact must be made by the articulating organs. In the case of breathed consonants. The explosion of a plosive consonant is formed by the air suddenly escapes at the instant when the stop is released. It the sense. A plosive consonant therefore cannot be properly pronounced without being followed by another independent sound.
Theory op Plosive Consonants of wsa'rsez. When transcriptions are arranged in breath-groups as in the examples in the next paragraph or in the is on pp. Plosive Consonants g. While the organs articulating a plosive consonant are actually in contact they form what may be termed the stop.
The rush of air. This fault which and it will effectually spoil one which often necessitates a great deal of practice to must be remembered that there is no break whatever in English between consecutive words which are closely connected by is correct.
It is a mistake what is otherwise a good pronunciation. The correct pronunciation up the sounds into syllables. Further examples for practice: This independent sound may be Jo nee. Unaspirated plosives fall into which considerable force of the breath the force of the breath is small.
When e. In English. The most important implosive sounds are those formed by ' With voiced plosive consonants the amount of force does not appreciably influence the effect of the sound on the eax. Thus part. When we represented by Mouth and Larynx fra- distinctneBs 92 cings of maiden Mouth and Larynx tracings of ated distinctness 86 bed-time. The u in the English diphthong ou as pronounced in normal liA.
An Embouchure 17 i Intonation-onrve of Good mor- Month -tracings of dn:. Tongue positions of t. A Nasal Olive. Whitchurch nounced with exaggerated dis. The O in the English diphthong The English "neutral" vowel 9 bean. Mouth aud Larynx tracings of Exploratory Bulbs. Tongue position of cacuminal t Mouth -tracings of bee.
Mouth-tracings of tight.. Mouth and Larynx tracings of pronounced in normal speech 90 play. Tongue position of I pro. A Kymograph I6ii IHO The English long a: Mouth-tracings of perhaps ATambour ICt speech!
The vowel A pronounced with nounced with cacuminal mo- exaggerated distinctness. Mouth-tracing of play. ALarynx Recorder. Tongue position of u: It is easy to show. Doubtless these values may be learned without diffi- culty. When a person is learning to speak a foreign language. Symbols to represent sounds are therefore necessary for the language student. Experience shows that difficulties of the first kind are best overcome by a study of phonetic theory.
Strange to say. Firstly he has to learn to form aU the speech-sounds oc- curring in the language. Phonetics is the science of pronunciation. The absence of such sym- bols would.
In the first place English assigns to many of the letters of the alphabet values quite different from those which foreigners are accustomed to associate with them: The formation of speech sounds might be studied without hav- ing any letters to represent the sounds. EnglUh Phonetics. Phonetically ru:!. The result of these inconsistencies is that the foreigner is in innumerable cases entirely at a loss to know what sounds should be used.
Hence it is that pho- netic writing becomes. The forms of the symbols necessary in phonetic transcription depend to some extent on the object in view. Phonetics and Phonetic Transcbiptiox compare the a's in father. Discrepancies between pronunciation and ordinary spelling are -not confined to the English language. He also finds that many English sounds may be spelt in a large number of different ways. Thus the words meet. Phonetic writing is defined as a system of alphabetic writing in which each symbol represents one and only one distinct elementary speech sound.
When distinguished from conventional spelling. If it aU the sounds oc- degired to have separate symbols for curlring in several languages and very large number of sym- dialects. The phonetic alphabet used here is that of the International Phonetic Association. A list of the symbols occurring in this book. Transcriptions of this kind are called narrow transcriptions. Leigh all have the same vowel sound. Broad transcription of English is used throughout this book.
By the appli- cation of these rules any broad transcription may be converted into a narrow one if desired. The French of Paris is different from that of Marseilles or Lausanne. The rules which enable us to simplify the transcription of English in practical work. The first question that confronts a person wishing to acquire a correct prociunciation of a foreign language is: The differences may arise from a variety of causes.
Cologne or Hamburg.
An example of differences of English pronunciation due to locality may be found in the letter r in such words as part. No two persons of the same nationality pronounce their own language exactly alike. Such narrow transcription is in every case enclosed in square brackets . A BROAD transcription may be defined as a transcription ob-' tained by using the minimum number of symbols requisite for re- presenting without ambiguity the sounds of the language in question without reference to other languages.
The various sounds denoted by them are fully described. I the former is more frequent among ladies and the latter among men. It is convenient for present purposes to choose as the standard of English pronunciation the form which appears to be most generally used by Southern English persons who have been educated at the great English public boarding schools.
Teaching Feb. Teaching Dec. In Berlin it is 1 regarded by many as a vulgarism to pronounce der which in stage pronunciation is de: Many suitable standards of English pronunciation might be suggested. In many parts of the North and the West of England on the other hand. In popular I Parisian the French brun is often pronounced brs instead of the standard brOB the vowel being a nazalized S. The existence of all these differences renders it necessary to setup a standard of pronunciation.
Individual peculiarities may be the result of habit. In North Ger- many initial w as in Wein is generally pronounced T. Those who are interested in the sub- ject of Standard English pronunciation are referred to the able articles by Wyld in Mod.
IMany Germans regard as a vulgarism je'jeibm. The differences between the pronunciation of old and young I persons. In educated Parisian speech the vowel re- presented by an in saws is fi viz.
Uneducated speakers in many parts of Eng- land omit the standard English sound h altogether. Style B is recommended for the use of foreigners and is the style indicated throughout this book.
A person may pronounce the same word or group of words quite differently under different circumstances. Those clear idea of the structure who have not already done so should make a thorough examination of the inside of the mouth by means of a hand looking-glass.
Models of the organs of speech will be found useful. Stanoakd Prondnciation. Suitable models obtained from C. JC The best way of doing this is to stand with the back to the light and to hold the looking-glass in such a position that it reflects the light into the mouth and at the same time enables the observer to see in the glass the interior thus illuminated.
Plastische Anstalt. A detailed description of the various parts of the organs of speech is not necessary. Such are the author's "Chart of the Organs of Speech". The first have a essential for the student of phonetics is to and functions of the organs of speech.
Wall charts of the organs of speech are also useful for class purposes. The first Style A is the pronunciation suitable for serious recitation. We may distinguish three principal styles of pronunciation which we may call Styles A. Itshould be noticed here that all speakers use more than one style of pronunciation.
Bertram Wilson. It is not difficult to find the right position for the glass. The Mouth. The spft palate can be moved Tongue.
These two Larynz. The Oboans of Speech SI. Hard upwards from the position shown in Palate. The teeth-ridge is defined as the i art of the roof of the mouth just behind the teeth which is convex to the tongue. Pharyngal three parts see. K Uvula. The Organs. Below it is the larynx which forms the upper part of the windpipe the passage leading to the lungs.
The pharynx is the cavity situated in the throat immediately behind the mouth. Blade of felt with the tongue or with the Tongue.
Soft Palate. Back of Tongue. Chapter III. The part Cavity Pharynk. The roof of the mouth is divided. Food Passage. It is probably lowered so as to close the larynx during the action of swallowing.
The epiglottis is a sort of lid to the larynx. Pharyngal Cavity fig. The remainder of the roof of the mouth comprises the other two parts. Front of finger. For the purposes of phone- tics it is convenient to imagine the Fig. Pharyngal Arch. They lun in a horizontal direction from back to front. The definitions of "back" and "front" are partic- ularly important. The analysis of sounds in general and the differences between English sounds and foreign sounds which resemble them. The material must be very thin.
The chords may be kept apart or they may be brought together so as to close the air passage. Experimental Methods 7 the teeth -ridge when the tongue is in the position of rest is caUed the llade. It is not suggested that experimental phonetics is a necessary study for all those who wish to pronounce a foreign language cor- rectly.
Such demonstrations belong to the branch of phonetic science known as "instrumental" or "experimental" phonetics. The apparatus used in elementary instrumental phonetics includes the artificial palate. When they are brought close together and air is forced between them they vibrate.
The parts of this book relating to experimental phonetics may be entirely omitted by those who have not time or opportunity to take up this branch of the subject. The artificial palate is used for recording the points of con- tact of the tongue with the palate in pronouncing sounds. The space between them is called the glottis. The kymograph and the experi- explanation of the ments which may be done with it are dealt with in Chapter XXI. The extremity of. The artificial palate being referred to jconstantly throughout this book.
Suitable artificial palates may be made of metal. The vocal chords are situated in the larynx. Palates in metal or vulcanite are more expensive. Spread it on a dentists mouth-ti-ay and introduce the tray into the mouth.
The under side of the artificial palate thus obtained should be covered with black varnish. A sound is then pronounced and the palate is with- ' Suitable palates may be made by any dentist.
If the material is not black the under side should be blackened with varnish. The under side of the palate is first covered with a little finely powdered chalk and inserted into the mouth.
When the whole is thoroughly dry. Apply a second piece of damp filter paper taking care as before not to leave any air-bubbles. Soften some dentists' wax by putting it in water. An artificial palate suffi ciently good for ordinary purposes may be made as follows. When quite hard. On the. The may be removed from the wax and Artificial Palate. Remove from the mouth. I'rioes vary considerably. The artificial palate is used as follows. Then cover the sur- face carefully with a piece of damp filter paper.
The Larynx as seen through the laryngoscojie. They may also be photographed if desired. Yoeal Chords. These marjrs on the artificial palate may then be examined at leisure.
Position for Breath. Certain intermediate positions of the glottis Front give rise to the sounds Front known as tvhisper. The limits of the gums adjoining the front teeth are marked on the present diagrams bv the dotted line fig. Position for Voice. The diagrams thus obtained are known as paUdograms. The palatograms in this book have been drawn from observations made with vulcanite palates. The Laryngoscope. The diagrams show the larynx as seen from above through the laryngoscope.
The parts of the palate from which the chalk has beeh removed show the poikts at which the tongue touched it.
The palates here used extend so as to cover the whole of the front teeth. Breath and voice may be illustrated artificially by the following. If we take hold of two Breath and opposite points of the edge of the indiarubber. When we speak in a whisper. Breath an'd Voice simple experiment. Thus it may be heard very clearly by means of a stethoscope. Every speech sound contains either breath or voice..
Those which contain breath are called breathed or voiceless sounds. The presence or absence of voice may be observed experi- mentally in various ways. Compare in these ways p with a. It does not require much practice for a person with a fairly good ear to be able to recognize by ear the difference between breathed and voiced sounds.
In tiie case of vowels it is sometimes convenient to mention the key word. The space enclosed by the edge of the indiarubber E. The following well known tests may. The tube of wood or glass is taken to represent the windpipe. Examples of breathed sounds are p.
This sound corresponds to voice. This corresponds to breath. It will not be necessary to deal further with whisper. It is in reality a distinction based on acoustic considerations.
The presence or absence of voice may also be tested by means of the kymograph see Chap. Breath and Voice. This instrument responds excellently to voiced consonants and close vowels.
The distinction between vowels and consonants is not an arbitrary physiological distinction. This may be seen by pronouncing a whispered fi immediately followed by a voiced a. A vowel in normal speech' is defined as a voiced sound in which the air has a free passage through the mouth. Zund-Burguet's Voice Indicator fig. Consonants therefore include i aU sounds which are not voiced e. In whispered speech "voice" is replaced throughout by "whisper" and every sound consists of audible friction and nothing else except the "stops" of breathed plosives.
There is no ob- jection to this terminology. All other sounds in normal speech' are called cgnsonants. Ziind-Burguet s Voice Indicator. The result resembles ha with a very strong kind of ll. When there is no great variation in the force of the breath. To every breathed sound corresponds a voiced sound. When so used. Close vowels are frequently used in this way. The relative sonority or carrying power of sounds depends chiefly on their quality.
This effect occurs when a vowel of less sonority is pronounced extremely short and is immediately followed by a vowel of greater sonority. It ' The line of distinction between vowels and consonants might have been drawn elsewhere.
It is convenient to regard semi-vowels as consonants rather than as vowels. Thus the sound a pronounced in the normal manner can be heard at a much greater distance than the sound p or the sound f pronounced in the normal manner. Thus it is a fact that speech sounds which consist wholly or in part of "noise" as distinguished from "musical sound" are less sonorous than those which contain no perceptible "noise". This method of classification would. The breathed consonants have very little sonority in comparison with the voiced sounds.
Some consonants are breaiJted. Hence a perfectly logical classifica- tion into vowels and consonants might be based on the presence or absence of perceptible "noise".
Classipication of Sounds they carry better or can be heard at a greater distance. The English sounds j and as in W yard jtt: If this classification were adopted.
J2 Chapter VI. Classification of Sounds 13 should be noted that voiced consonants are usually pronounced with less force of the breath than breathed consonants. Apart from the division into the two groups "breathed" and "voiced". The difficulty generally lies in the voiced sounds.. Llangollen an'galeii. Besides being useful in teaching voiced sounds. A true1 may be acquired by prac- voiced tising the exercise pmpmpm pronounced without opening the lips. This is done by practising sequences such as Tfvf.
When the attention of foreigners is called to the nature of the fully voiced sounds. The distinction between breathed and voiced consonants is of the utmost importance.
These exercises present extraordinary difficulty to some foreigners. If we classify them according to the organs which articulate them. The distinction between the voiced and breathed "plosives" p. In practising these exercises. It is a good phonetic exercise to deduce unfamiliar breathed consonants from familiar voiced ones. Voiced d. Take care that this exercise does not degenerate into iHiuium.
These sounds are sometimes called divided conson- ants of side consonants. Dented sounds.. It is sometimes convenient to group the nasal. These sounds are often called trilled consonants. It is often convenient to sub divide these into two classes a pre-dental sounds.
Palatal sounds. Fricative cons'onants. Glottal or laryngal sounds. Velar sounds. Rolled consonants. The nasal consonants are the only English sounds in which the soft palate is lowered. Labial or lip sounds. Lateral consonants. Nasal consonants. Classification of Sounds I.
If we classify consonants Siccording to the manner in which the organs articulate them. French t. The classification of consonants is made clear by arranging them in a table. The following is a table of the English consonants so arranged: Lai Bi- labial.
Classification of Sodnds 15 Classification or Sodnds opening E at tlie end of the rod. The chief vowels of weU-defined quality may be conveniently classed in five groups.
The vowels of obscure quality ai'e chiefly those in which the tongue is in an intermediate vowel position. The shape of the air passage above the larynx is governed. The Vowel Triangle". The quality timbre of this sound depends oir the length of the part of the cylinder projecting beyond the piston. This triangle is known as the "Vowel Fig.
Note that the posi- tion of the tip of the tongue has no great effect on vowel quality. Those in which the highest point of the tongue is approximately on the right-hand side of the triangle.
Tongue posi- Fig.
Such are the vowels in it. A point which cannot fail to strike anyone comparing the qualities timbres of various vowels is that some vowels e. The vowels of weU-defined quality are chiefly those in which the tongue is remote from such aa intermediate position. Such are the vowels in pid. If we examine the tongue positions of the typical sounds of these five classes we find that the highest points of the tonguelie roughly on the sides of a triangle as shown in figs.
West View. It is not necessary to distinguish more than this one intermediate degree between back vowels and front vowels. Frmi Bmi- glass.
Classification of Vowels [ 7 Vowels may also be classed according to the height to which the tongue is raised. An example of a mixed vowel is the vowel in iird. Eastbury Avenue. It will be seen that in front vowels the "front" of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate. Vowels in which the highest point of the tongue is weU within the triangle. When we classify vowels according to the height to which the tongue is raised.
The positions of the tongue in the for. AB is a narrow metal tube 16 cm. Atkinson Esq.. In the above system of classification into the three divisions front. The Classification vowels. Within the tube is a wire having at the lower end a handle D which projects through the slot and enables the observer ' Obtainable from H. The price of the set of two instruments with necessary- fittings is Engllih Phonetics 2.
North- wood. They may also be determined experi. Further points may be recorded by using another tooth-stop without the two projecting pieces of metal. The wire is of such a length that when the handle D is at the end A of the slot. Classificatiok xjf Soukds 18 to slide the wire along inside the tube.
The handle D is then pushed along by the thumb until the end of the wire touches the tongue. FGH is a wire handle. When the bellows ' This latter arrangement really gives the best results it is better to reserve the. To the bellows a pointer P. In taking measurements the tooth-stop is adjusted at any required point and the projection then turned upwards so as to fix it. The instrument is then removed from the mouth and the Pig. By adjusting the tooth-stop at different points.
It is so rtiade that when the projection points downwards it can slide along the tube. The relative heights in pronouncing some of the tongue vowels may be demonstrated roughly by means of a quadrant indicator fig. The instru- ment is then held with the 3 middle fingersthrough the holes F. E is an attachment called the "tooth-stop".
Consequently when the handle D is pushed to the other end C of the slot. Atkinson's son's Mouth Mouth Measurer in by applying it to a previously prepared Measurer. Elwert of Marburg a. Chapter VI. A rubber tube T to which exploratory bulbs. He has also an-ived at valuable results with X-ray photographs.
The lips may be held in a natural or neutral position. An account of his work will be found in Untersuchungen iiber Lautbildung by E. Meyer of Stockholm has obtained excellent diagrams of the tongue positions of vowels by means of a row of fine leaden threads attached to an artificial palate along its centre line. Similarly if the distance is much less than 1 cm. The pencil should not be more than 1 cm. Vowels produced with the lips the latter position are called rounded vowels.
Classification op Vowet. If the spreading of the lips is very marked. Examples of rounded vowels are the sounds of the u type. Vowel quality. The height of the jaw may be kept constant by holding the end of a pencil firmly between the teeth.. Others are called unrounded.
Falatograms are also useful in this connection see figs.. Meyer published by Elwert. Another element which is considered by many to he of im- portance in determining vowel quality is the state of the tongue and ' If the distance between the teeth is much greater than 1 cm. By attaching a rubber bulb see fig. Ziind-Burguet's Quadrant It is desirable ru making palatograms Indicator. The differences of these sorts are mostly in vocabulary, however, and are not of great concern in a book on pronunciation.
The geographic differences are important for this book. Chapter 4 contains a more technical account of what these differences are.
Within two centuries they had subjugated, intermarried with, or pushed back the people who were there before them, until varieties of English were being spoken in most of what is now England and in the lowlands of Scotland though some have maintained that Scots is a language related to English rather than a dialect of it.
In the centuries that followed regional varieties of English developed in a feudal society that had no ruling class nor dominant center. With the Norman Conquest in French became the language of the ruling class, the language of government, just as Latin was the language of Language and Speech 3 religion. With the establishment of a strong, centralized kingdom under the Tudors in the sixteenth century the importance of London continued to grow, but until the Industrial Revolution, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, most Englishmen spoke some regional variety of English.
The Industrial Revolution brought rural populations into the cities. During the nineteenth century a larger middle class came into existence, and the idea of belonging to the middle class became associated with speaking a particular form of English. This particular way of speaking came to be called Received Pronunciation RP. But to this day only a small portion of the English population speak RP. Regional and urban dialects remain.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries English monarchs began to annex their Celtic-speaking neighbors to the English crown. When James VI of Scotland became James I of England he united the crowns and sought to promote throughout Scotland the reading of the English Bible and the establishment of English schools to make this possible. Though there were settlements of English-speakers in Ireland from the Norman era on, the Anglicization of Ireland is something that began in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with usurpation of Irish estates and settlement of English and Scottish loyalists there.
If Welsh, Scottish, and Irish English had their origins in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the establishment of English in North America came very shortly after.
In the early eighteenth century England gained control of the Maritime provinces of Canada and near the end of that century laid claim to the whole country. Unlike Ireland, Wales, and Scotland, where English was imposed largely on people of Celtic language background, in North America English was the language of people who came 4 Language and Speech from the British Isles or the language learned by people who came later from other parts of Europe.
Settlement of the major English-speaking countries of the southern hemisphere dates from the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Britain took possession of the Cape Colony in South Africa in , and migration from England and Scotland grew rapidly after RP has been, however, a prestige norm in most parts of the Commonwealth — less perhaps in Canada than in the southern hemisphere.
Contrariwise, those who take pride in being Australian or South African are likely to hold fast to the pronunciations which are endemic. On one hand, we may want to describe what people do when they are speaking English. This is the aspect of speech, an activity carried on by people who use English for communicating.
Speech is not the same as language. More important, speech is an activity which is carried on in numerous events; language is knowledge, a code which is known and shared by people who use their knowledge for transmitting and interpreting messages in these events.
When someone is speaking, anyone who is close enough can hear — the sound waves set up in the air by the speaker reach the eardrums of the hearer.
But only a person who knows the language can understand what is said. Because we are interested in pronunciation from both these aspects, we will make use of information and concepts drawn from two disciplines, phonetics and phonology. Phonetics deals with speech in its purely physical aspects — Language and Speech 5 the way sounds are articulated by the speaker, the acoustic properties of sound waves, and the effects that these have on the ear of the hearer and on the ear of the speaker, for that matter.
Phonology relates the physical facts of speech to other linguistic knowledge which speakers possess, knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Phonology is concerned with describing pronunciations but, more than that, with accounting for what is relevant in pronunciations, what makes it possible to communicate, what makes one utterance different from another. Because we are interested in both speech and language, we need certain terms to use in describing both.
We start with terms that have to do with speech: We use the term discourse to refer to any act of speech which occurs in a given place and during a given period of time. In this book we are concerned mostly with spoken discourse. A written discourse may be the record of something that has been spoken, or it may originate for the purpose of being performed aloud, like a speech or play, or it may exist without ever having been spoken or intended to be spoken, like most articles and books.
Two utterances in a discourse may be partly simultaneous, but only when two people speak at the same time. An utterance consists of at least one tone unit, a stretch of speech which has a melody or intonation, one of a fairly small inventory of intonation contours that exist in the language.
The action of the vocal cords is described further in chapter 2, and the intonations are outlined in chapter A tone unit consists of at least one syllable and usually a number of syllables. A syllable consists of a vowel sound, usually with consonants before and after it.
When a tone unit consists of several syllables, which is usually the case, they differ in prominence. Relative prominence is due to some combination of factors: greater force with which air is expelled from the lungs, higher pitch or changing pitch, the duration, or timing, of the syllable. These matters are discussed in greater detail in chapter 5. A syllable consists of at least one segment and usually more than one. Nevertheless, we perceive a succession of different sounds, a chain of speech made up of different segments linked to one another.
In the word meat, to take a very short example, we think that we articulate three distinct sounds in sequence. This is not quite true. The vocal organs do not assume one position, then another, and then another; they are in motion as long as we are talking. The elements listed so far occur more or less sequentially: the utterances of a discourse occur one after another, tone units follow one another, syllables occur in succession, and within syllables the segments come one after another though there is more overlap than we might think.
The last elements of speech to be mentioned occur simultaneously. Each such position or movement is an articulatory feature. These features always occur in simultaneous bundles; no segment can consist of a single feature. The segment [m], which occurs at the beginning of the word meat, is produced with the vocal cords vibrating, the lips closed together, and air coming out through the nose. These are three articulatory features combined.
We will also need to refer to units of language from time to time in this book. Some terms for units of language are familiar to you. In our use of language we express ourselves much of the time in sentences. Sentences consist of phrases, and phrases consist of words. Words belong to different classes; major classes are called nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs; minor classes are determiners, prepositions, conjunctions, and others.
Every word consists of at least one morpheme, a minimal unit that contributes in some way to the meaning of the whole word. Each of these meaningful units is a morpheme: honest, dis-, -ly, -ty. Usually a morpheme is expressed in just one way, in some sequence of the phonemes of the language. The phoneme is the unit which makes the Language and Speech 7 connection between sound and meaning.
A phoneme is a unit of sound in a particular language which is capable of differentiating morphemes, the units of meaning of that language. Different morphemes have different meanings, but they may sound the same. As these examples show, we use a letter or a combination of two letters to represent each English phoneme and always between slant lines.
A phoneme is not a letter. A language has phonemes whether it is written in an alphabetic system or not — indeed, whether it has ever been written or not. Besides, a phoneme may be represented by different letters or sequences of letters, like the ee and ea of the examples above; two letters may represent the same phoneme, as in kit and cat; or two different phonemes may be represented in spelling by the same letter or letters, like the th in thy and thigh.
That is not accurate, as the next paragraphs will show. We think of meet and moot as beginning the same way, and likewise beet and boot. That is true, but not true.
Instead, note the position and shape of your tongue and lips. At the same time the lips are stretched for geese and rounded for goose — at the very beginning. Next, get ready to say glee and glue and compare. Some features, in the sounds that 8 Language and Speech you are ready to make, are the same and some are different.
The tongue-back, or dorsum, is in contact with the roof of the mouth for all of these. At the same time there is lip-stretching for geese and glee, lip-rounding for goose and glue. In addition, you note that the sides of the tongue are curled inward for glee and glue. Now get ready to say greet and grew and observe. The back of your tongue is again touching the roof of the mouth, and the lips are stretched for greet, rounded for grew, and the tip of the tongue is drawn back and bunched up.